Clinical Articles

The following section outlines the clinical papers, posters and proposals that refer to the clinical use of MRL mushroom nutrition products. This information is for healthcare practitioners only and should not be provided to members of the general public.
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1) Universidade Pedagógica, Rua João Carlos Raposo Beirão 135, Maputo, Moçambique
2) Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Coimbra, Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
3) Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
4) Universidade Católica Portuguesa, CBQF - Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Rua Arquiteto Lobão Vital, Apartado 2511, 4202-401 Porto, Portugal
5) ACIVET, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University, 1300-477 Lisboa, Portugal
*Corresponding author: profcattitofernandes@gmail.com

The current short article reviews the role of mushroom biomass, rich in β-glucans, enzymes, germanium and secondary metabolites, the interaction with the human gut microbiota and the prevention or treatment of various metabolic syndrome-linked diseases. The focus is on mushroom β-glucans compared to other soluble and fermentable dietary fibres, their unique effects on nutrition, human microbiota, health and disease, specifying the significantly differing physicochemical properties depending on the source and type of mushroom or dietary supplement. An overview of definitions and types of fibre, a brief examination of the health benefits associated with β-glucans from mushroom biomass, its possible mechanisms of action, and its potential dietary supplement applications are provided. Despite promising evidence of mushroom biomass on health much research still remains to be done.

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In this article, Professor Vittorio Calabrese explains the role that the mushrooms Coriolus versicolor and Hericium erinaceus may play in inhibiting the progression of diseases related to oxidative stress such as dementia or early Alzheimer's disease. The role of this mushrooms comes from upregulating LXA4 a protein in the brain cells membrane that will stimulate certain systems within our body to reduce these oxidative species.

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a) Applied Plant Science Division, Agri-Food & Bioscience Institute, Northern Ireland
b) Grosvenor Grammar School, Northern Ireland
c) Northern Ireland Public Health Laboratories, Department of Bacteriology, Belfast City, Northern Ireland
d) School of Biomedical Sciences, Centre for Molecular Sciences, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland

Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 15 (2009) 5-7

Antibiotic agents have been in widespread and largely effective therapeutic use since their discovery in the 20th century. However, with the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens now presents an increasing global challenge to both human and veterinary medicine. It is now widely acknowledged that there is a need to develop novel antimicrobial agents to minimize the threat of further antimicrobial resistance, With this in mind, a study was undertaken to examine the antimicrobial properties of aqueous extracts of “exotic” Shitake and Oyster mushrooms on a range of environmental and clinically important microorganisms.

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Besides nutritional properties, mushrooms have attracted market attention because they are a potential source of bioactive compounds able to perform several functions in organisms with benefits for consumer health. In recent years Coriolus versicolor aroused interest among researchers because of the bioactive properties demonstrated.
Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) and polysaccharopeptide Krestin (PSK) have shown to be useful adjuncts to the therapy of cancer; these polysaccharides from C. versicolor have also shown prebiotic activity, stimulating the growth of probiotic bacteria. This review article highlights the health-promoting potential of several mushroom species with special emphasis on C. versicolor.

(1) Universidade Católica Portuguesa, CBQF - Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Rua Arquiteto Lobão Vital, Apartado 2511, 4202-401 Porto, Portugal

(2) Centro de Investigación en Recursos Naturales y Sustentabilidad (CIRENYS), Universidad Bernardo O’Higgins, Fábrica N∘ 1990, Segundo Piso, Santiago, Chile

(3) CEIL, Lúrio University, Marrere, Nampula, Mozambique


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. Vol. 4, No. 12, 2016, pp 773-781

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This article provides an overview of the essential differences between the biomass and extract form of mushroom products. The article addresses the betagucan content of both forms as well as the three forms of enzyme activity found in biomass form; contributing to their role as “biological response modifiers”.

(1) Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Institute of Higyene and Tropical Medicine, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
(2) University of Coimbra, Portugal.
(3) Ministry of Education and Human Development, Maputo, Mozambique.
(4) University of Catania, Italy

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† Equal contributors
1 Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
2 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy

Results indicate that nutritional modulation of critical proteins involved in brain stress tolerance can be achieved via supplementation with a well characterized strain of Hericium erinaceus biomass. These findings are relevant to those theories connecting faulty protein quality control mechanisms with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases

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Results indicate that nutritional modulation of critical proteins involved in brain stress tolerance can be achieved via supplementation with a well characterized strain of C. versicolor biomass. These findings are relevant to those theories connecting faulty protein quality control mechanisms with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases

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There is a body of thought that viruses such as the herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is a contributing factor in the development of Alzheimer´s disease. In addition, Dr LaFerla at the University of California has suggested the activation of Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) could reduce the progress of (or delay the onset of) Alzheimer´s disease. This article provides the rationale for the use of mushroom nutrition (in the form of a combination of Coriolus versicolor and Hericium erinaceus (biomass)), to provide both anti-viral protection and activation of LXA4.

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Some mushrooms have been known to exhibit several medicinal properties for thousands of years in Japanese and other Asian cultures. The Reishi mushroom, also known as Ganoderma lucidum, is well characterized (in Traditional Chinese Medicine) for the prevention and treatment of several disease states such as cancer, allergies and asthma. In the west, Reishi is commonly sold in the extract form. This study shows the difference in the concentration of both enzymes and beta-glucans between one Reishi extract sample and one Reishi biomass sample.

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In this two page article, Professor Amin Karmali discusses the role of enzyme content in the biomass form of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) and potential use in histamine mediated allergic response ie. Hayfever. The article compares the enzyme content of an extracted form of Reishi when compared to the biomass form of Reishi when both forms are exposed (in vitro) to digestive enzymes.

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This poster presents strong scientific evidence that monoclonal antibodies raised against beta glucans from MRL´s Pleurotus ostreatus also recognize beta glucans from other MRL products which is very interesting regarding their tertiary structure. The importance of the tertiary structure of beta-glucans is due to the fact that all beta-glucans with anti-tumor activity exhibited this tertiary structure. (Presented at the 12th International Chemical and Biological Engineering Conference (CHEMPOR 2014), organized by the Department of Chemical Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering - University of Porto and Ordem dos Engenheiros (the Portuguese Engineers Association), held in Porto, Portugal, between the 10th and 12th of September, 2014

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The data presented strongly support that MRL products contain high levels of beta glucans with anti-tumour activity by using a different colorimetric assay method based on alcian blue. The Alcian Blue method is based on formation of soluble complex formation between the polysaccharides and alcian blue which is specific for Beta-glucans with anti-tumour activity. (Presented at the 12th International Chemical and Biological Engineering Conference (CHEMPOR 2014), organized by the Department of Chemical Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering - University of Porto and Ordem dos Engenheiros (the Portuguese Engineers Association), held in Porto, Portugal, between the 10th and 12th of September, 2014.

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(tchernev@safesex.bg)

This poster was presented at the 3rd Congress of Gynecologists and obstetricians of Macedonia (with International Participation) from May 16th to 19th, 2013, Orhid, Macedonia.

Conclusion: Coriolus-MRL has no adverse reactions and drug interactions with the main drugs used for the treatment and it could be taken during pregnancy. It is an addition to the methods for prevention and treatment (both combined and conservative) of HPV infection.

1 University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Sofia, Bulgaria.

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(Jsilvacouto@netcabo.pt)

This poster was presented at the 14th World Congress of Cervical Pathology and Coloscopy, July 4-7, 2011 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Conclusion: The use of Coriolus versicolor for one year revealed a great efficacy, whether in the regression of the displasia (LSIL) or in the disappearance of the High Risk HPV. It seems therefore, to be a very useful food supplementation with positive therapeutic impact, either in the reversion of LSIL (with High Risk HPV+), or in those HSIL patients, who have undergone surgery but experience continued High Risk HPV viral count.


1 Gynaecology Department-Portuguese Institute of Oncology-Cervical Pathology Unit, Coimbra, Portugal
2 CEF/Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

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The main outcome was to study the mean rate of change in Natural Killer Cell Activity in patients who have undergone conventional breast cancer protocol: chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy in which there is a subseqent decrease in Natural Killer Cell Activity. The study was funded by CTRF and was halted as naturopaths were unable to recruit patients for the study. The attachments outline the rational for the study along with timeline.

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The attached is the English translation of the following 2008 Medline article: Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2008;47 Suppl 3:51-3. [Coriolus versicolor—innovation in prevention of oncogynecological diseases, especially HPV]. [Article in Bulgarian]
Bogdanova J.

Abstract: Coriolus-MRL is a nutrient adjuvant, which contains biomass of the fungus Coriolus versicolor and is studied to reverse early stages of cervical cancer and to reduce risk factors of reoccurring HPV virus. PMID:19449722
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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(http://www.breakspearmedical.com)

Journal of Integrative Medicine 2004;8:101-108

In this article Dr. Jean Monro of Breakspear Hospital, has demonstrated in a group of 36 patients who have had defined chronic fatigue syndrome and autonomic dysfunction that Coriolus MRL has been an immuno-therapeutic agent. It has improved natural killer cells numbers by 35% in this group with a two months course of treatment.

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Archives of Environmental Health, August 2003 (Vol. 58 (No.8 )). Reprinted with permission of the Helen Dwight Reid Educational Foundation. Published by Heldref Publications, 1319 18th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-1802. Copyright � (2004).

In this article Dr. Monro points discusses how 20% of all cancers are triggered by viral infections. Dr. Monro outlines that having provided 30 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients Coriolus-MRL supplementation over eight weeks, there were significant improvements in the overall immune systems of the majority of the patients and that Coriolus supplementation could be utilized as a preventative immunutrition for those patients with such viral conditions that could develop into more serious oncological conditions i.e. HPV infection or Epstein Barr infection. Dr. Monro also outlines that Coriolus supplementation not only increases Natural Killer cell activity by 35%, but may also play a role in facilitating intercellular communication, thereby allowing the immune system to operate more effectively.

For more information on Heldref Publications and the Archives of Environmental Health, see the following link http://www.heldref.org

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Published October 2004 in Nutritional Practitioner Magazine (ISSN 1472-0094).

Allergies and asthma are two examples of histamine-mediated allergic responses. Both conditions are increasing in frequency and are difficult to target with modern medicine. The modern approach to drug research is target specific and does not consider the natural defense mechanisms of the body or the causative factors (a cytokine TH1 to cytokine TH2 shift) underlying histamine-mediated allergic responses. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as immunonutrition, with its unique array of compounds working in concert, could play a major role in treatment of histamine-mediated allergic responses.

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Presented at the 10th International Congress of Mucosal Immunology in Amsterdam, June 28th - July 1st, 1999.

This curiosity outlines the impact of Coriolus versicolor supplementation on the White Blood Count (WBC) in three HIV positive patients at the following intervals of supplementation: Days 1-15 at 3.0 grams per day; Days 16-45 at 1.5 grams per day. Results: a 45% increase in WBC over 45 days.

To Contact Dr. Grazia Rotolo, please contact grotolo@venus.it

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Presented at the 10th International Congress of Mucosal Immunology in Amsterdam, June 28th - July 1st, 1999.

This curiosity outlines the impact of Coriolus supplementation (6.0 grams per day to 9.0 grams per day) on the CD4 levels and viral load levels of three (3) Kaposi sarcoma patients. Results: For Kaposi sarcoma patients, Coriolus versicolor supplementation at 6.0 grams per day to 9.0 grams per day can significantly increase CD4 levels and provide a better quality of life.

To Contact Mr John Tindall please contact Yuan Clinic at:
Yuan Clinic
c/o Green Healer7 Clapham High Street
London SW4 7TS
United Kingdom

Tel/Fax:+44-207-622-9079.

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Presented at the III International Symposium on Mushroom Nutrition in Milan on Saturday, March 10th, 2001.

This case study outlines the changes in CD4 levels and viral loads of eight (8) HIV+ patients on Coriolus versicolor supplementation levels of 1.5 grams per day over a twelve (12) month period. Results: Coriolus versicolor supplementation as low as 1.5 grams per day can increase CD4 levels and decrease viral loads in HIV+ patients. For similar impact in post-HAART patients the supplementation levels must be at 3.0 grams per day.

To contact Ms. Marijke Pfeiffer
Centrum Voor Integrale GeneeskundesAmsterdam, The Netherlands

Fax:31-20-624-9710

Email: cig@xs4all.nl

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In this case study on the use of Coriolus versicolor in fifteen (15) patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Dr. Monro measures the increase in Natural Killer Cell (NK) activity over 45 days when Coriolus supplementation is given at 3.0 grams for fifteen (15) days and then decreased to 1.5 grams for thirty (30) days. Results: Coriolus supplementation increased NK cell activity significantly in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients.

To contact Dr.Jean Monro at Breakspear Hospital

Tel:44-1442-261-333 / Fax:44-1442-266-388

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Presented at the 2nd International Symposium on HPV and Cancer, in Lisbon Portugal on May 26th, 2001.

This prospective trial design outlines the rational for the use of Coriolus versicolor supplementation (3.0 grams per day) to improve the immune system in HPV infected women in order to control the stage of HPV development. Dr. Monro is the first to suggest that Coriolus versicolor supplementation may reverse a Th1 to Th2 shift in the immune system.

To contact Dr.Jean Monro at Breakspear Hospital

Tel:44-1442-261-333 / Fax:44-1442-266-388

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The Role of Mushroom Nutrition as A Delivery Agent for Enzyme Therapy in Cancer Care?
Chemical and Biological Properties in Mushroom Nutrition

In this abstract, Professor Karmali examines the in vitro content of lacasse activity, protease activity, peroxidase activity and glycomylase activity (glycose-2-oxidase) of various mushrooms (Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidium, Cordyceps sinensis and Coriolus versicolor ) per 500 mg tablet.

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Presented at the 4th International Symposium on Mushroom Nutrition, University of Westminster, June 15th, 2002.

Professor Lorite gives a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) perspective on the reason that women having Chronic Fatigue Syndrome over a long period of time may suffer from breast lumps / myomas. She provides suggestions for treatment from a TCM perspective that includes acupuncture, herbs and Coriolus versicolor supplementation.

To contact Professor Nuria Lorite
Centro BilobaC/ Santa Clara, 4128200 San Lorenzo de El EscorialMadrid Spain

Tel.: +34 650 43 90 91

Email: nurialoriteayan@gmail.com

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Presented at the 5th International Symposium on Mushroom Nutrition, University of Westminster, June 14th, 2002.

This abstract outlines the impact of using 4.5 grams per day of Coriolus versicolor supplementation in a breast cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy. The case study outlines the significant impact of Coriolus supplementation on immune parameters and on the quality of life for the patient.

To contact Dra. Ana Ferro / Paula Boaventura
Clinica de Saúde Integral
Rua Constitução, 1959-loja A 4250 / 170 Porto, Portugal

Tel:351-22-832-80-47 / Fax:351-22-832-80-49

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This study of increasing Coriolus versicolor supplementation (4.5 grams per day to 13.0 grams per day over a 90 day period) measures the impact of such supplementation on telomerase activity, interleukin 5, interleukin 12 and Tumour Necrosis Factor Beta over 120 days. Results were a significant decrease in teleomerase and interleukin-12 activity, followed by a significant increase in interleukin-5 activity within 120 days.

Presented at the 5th International Symposium on Mushroom Nutrition, University of Westminster, June 14th, 2002.

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Presented at the 5th International Symposium on Mushroom Nutrition, University of Westminster, June 14th, 2002.

In this abstract, Professor Karmali measures the in vitro content of SOD, Cytochrome P-450, Cytochrome P-450 reductase in various mushrooms (Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidium, Cordyceps sinensis and Coriolus versicolor) per 500 mg tablet.

To contact Professor Karmali Biotechnology Section

Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (ISEL)

Tel:351-21-831-7052 / Fax:351-21-831-7267

Email: akarmali@isel.ipl.pt

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Presented at the 5th International Symposium on Mushroom Nutrition, University of Westminster, June 14th, 2002.

A request was made to CytoGenex to determine whether the MRL nutritional support products, known as Coriolus (BN 03143), Reishi (BN 02194), Cordyceps (BN 03021) and Maitake (BN 03165) had any significant toxicity when tested with a standard toxicity screen. A system has been developed by Cytogenex laboratories based on the liver cell line, HepG2. Toxicity has a number of connotations, but Cytogenex Laboratories takes the term to mean that the test article causes 'no apparent loss of viability of cells used as an assay system'. Viability in this context is taken to mean that cell integrity is maintained. Loss of viability for a cell population is equated with the occurrence of cell death by the mechanism of apoptosis or necrosis. This presentation presents the results of this analysis.

To contact Dr. Chris Newton
CytoGenex Ltd.
121 Westbourne Avenue
Kingson-upon Hull
HU5 3HU
Tel:44-1482-346-381

http://www.cytogenex.com