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In this edition of the Clinical Journal of Mycology Vol V these are the articles that you will be able to find:

- Prof. Amin Karmali continued his work on the enzyme analysis of Mushrooms. In this article Prof. Karmali states the results gathered after comparing Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), Auricularia auricula and Poria cocos. The results shown in the tables relate to testing made with the mushrooms when in the presence or absence of Digestive enzymes.

- Chris Newton from the Centre for Immuno-metabolism discusses the possibility of mushroom nutrition as a way to compete with gliadin (part of gluten) for the Dectin-1 receptor. Beside this, the beta-glucans within the mushrooms will upregulate the process of autophagy which is essential to keep cell homeostasis in the gut and increase the food tolerance.

- Prof. Tito Fernandes, Prof. Ana Barros and Prof. Jorge Ferrão analysed the effects of supplementation with Coriolus versicolor in a sample of male and female rat. This article shows the conclusions they reached after monitoring the rats for 90 days.

- Prof. Vittorio Calabrese and collborators after writing articles on both Coriolus versicolor and Hericium erinaceus discuss on possibility of having both mushrooms working together to manage the development of Alzheimer's disease in its early stages.

- In the last article of the Journal researchers from diferente Universities discuss on the possibility of using the biomass of Coriolus versicolor as a prebiotic. To do this they mimicked the conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and show the growth of bacterial species commonly presente in the human flora.

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In this issue, Prof. Amin Karmali compares in vitro the impact of proteolytic enzymes on the beta-glucan content, enzyme content and secondary metabolite content between a biomass form of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) versus an extracted form of Ganoderma lucidum. Various forms of Beta 1,3 -1,6 glucan activities are measured, such as water soluble fraction, hot water fraction, NaOH fraction, KOH fraction and HCI fraction. In terms of enzymes, measurements, super-oxide dismutase activity (SOD), peroxidase activity, Glucoamylase/Beta-glucanasase activity, Glucose 2-oxdase activity, Cytochrome “P-450”, Cytochrome P 450 reductase were taken in the absence of proteolytic enzymes and in the presence of proteolytic enzymes.

A copy of Professor Todor Chernev´s poster presentation entitled “Coriolus-MRL supplementation in patients infected with low-risk and high-risk HPV subtypes - Bulgarian experience. The original poster presentation on the use of Coriolus-MRL in two separate studies (100 patients and 200 patients respectively) reinforces the original clinical work by Dr. Silva Couto in which Coriolus-MRL is a useful tool for gynecologists when working with HPV LSIL patients with High risk viral subtypes.

Presented is an English translation of a 2008 Bulgarian Medline article on Coriolus-MRL by Dr. Yuliyana Bogdanova (PhD) from the Bulgarian Institute of Botany, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, in Sofia, Bulgaria. The study outlines the clinical development of Coriolus-MRL.

Finally, Professor Vittorio Calabrese (University of Catania, Italy) and Professor Tito Fernandes (Scientific Director, University of Lurio, Mozambique) propose to use mushroom nutrition in Alzheimer´s patients. This two-part proposal is focused on the premise that the HSV1 virus could trigger the biochemical events that lead to the development of Alzheimer´s disease. The paper relies on work conducted by researchers working with Dr. Frank M. LaFerla at the at the department of Neurobiology and Behavior at the university of California Irvine, in Irvine California and to work conducted by researchers working with Professor Ruth Itzhaki in the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. As a first step, the proposed protocol seeks to verify that Coriolus-MRL when combined equally with Hericium-MRL can activate Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) activity which has been postulated as a novel approach to addressing the symptoms associated with Alzheimer´s disease. With confirmation that mushroom nutrition can activate LXA4 activity, then a small scale human study will be initiated.

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